Oxycodone is an analgesic opioid medication that's generally used for the relief of moderate-to-severe pain. it had been first developed by German researchers in 1916 from opium-derived thebaine . Oxycontin was approved by the FDA in 1995 and was introduced into us market in 1996 . By 2001 it had been the best-selling narcotic pain reliever within the us , and in 2008 sales within us reached .5 billion .
Oxycodone is metabolized by the cytochrome p450 enzyme system within the liver. Only 10% is excreted unchanged in urine. Because it's metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes, oxycodone is susceptible to pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Such drug interactions may unexpectedly increase exposure to oxycodone, and cause potentially dangerous adverse effects like respiratory depression.
Oxycodone is widely wont to alleviate moderate-to-severe acute pain, but it's also increasingly utilized in the management of cancer-related and chronic pain . Oxycodone has been found to enhance the standard of lifetime of patients with many sorts of pain. Other pain relievers are morphine, heroin, and cocaine. The opioids morphine and oxycodone are potent analgesics that are available as extended-release and immediate-release tablets. The indications are an equivalent for both drugs, that is, they're wont to treat severe acute and chronic pain (non-malignant or malignant). Few clinical studies have compared morphine and oxycodone directly, and there's no evidence to support one being superior to the opposite. there's also no evidence of a big difference in analgesia or within the incidence of adverse effects between oxycodone and morphine or hydromorphone. Oxycodone can thus be recommended as an alternate to morphine or hydromorphone for cancer-related pain. However, we now know that morphine and oxycodone exert different effects within the sensitized pain system as oxycodone features a greater analgesic effect against skin, muscle, and oesophageal pain. Clinical experience of oxycodone use also indicates that it's superior to morphine within the treatment of some pain conditions. Since oxycodone is safer than morphine, it's been used for refractory bone pain, which features a complicated pathophysiological mechanism. Given these characteristics, oxycodone could be an appropriate candidate for first-line management of cancer-related pain despite the big variety of pathophysiologies of such pain.A replacement study has recently reported on 5 clinical cases where oxycodone was effective against pain induced by anti-cancer agents during adjuvant therapy. Pain intensity as measured by a numerical rating scale was decreased to but 3 out of 10 compared to baseline in every patient but one. during a previous experimental pain study in healthy volunteers, morphine and oxycodone were found to possess comparable analgesic potency in modulating skin and muscle pain, but oxycodone showed greater analgesic potency for visceral pain. Subsequently, another experimental pain study was performed in patients with chronic pancreatitis, and oxycodone was found to be stronger than morphine in attenuating experimental skin, muscle, and visceral pain. This supports the idea of various analgesic potencies of morphine and oxycodone when hyperalgesia is present. A study in 2011 also showed that a fixed-ratio morphine-oxycodone combination (MoxDuo) produced superior analgesic effects compared with each component individually, but comparable efficacy compared with morphine-equivalent doses in moderate-to-severe postoperative pain.