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How is Natural Gas Extracted
A very commonly asked question is how is natural gas extracted but before we answer it let us find out how and where is the natural gas produced? Natural gas is produced as the layers of decaying plant and animal matter underneath the earth's surface are exposed to extreme pressure and heat under the over very long time probably millions of years. Natural gas has many different types of compounds the biggest being methane (CH4). Others may include natural gas liquids both none and hydrocarbon gasses like CO2 water vapor. Natural gas is used in manufacture of chemicals and materials. Natural gas does not only occur on dry land but also in deep sea floor
As the matter is sealed off from oxygen these organic materials undergo a process known as thermal breakdown caused by escalating amount of pressure and heat thus exchange the fossils into hydrocarbons.
Having different densities the lightest compound being CH4 tend to leave the matter as gaseous state referred to as renewable natural gas. We have two major groups of natural gas that is in regard to the location and origin of the gas that is Unconventional and Conventional
Conventional natural gas is mostly found collectively with oil reservoirs and is extracted by drilling wells and uses traditional pumping method. Natural gas on most cases is being found floating on the oil owing to its resilience or sometimes it’s mixed with the oil. When the natural gas is entirely produced the gas is extracted and depends on two uniqueness on environment that surrounds rock to be precise the permeability and porosity
Porosity refers to the bare spaces that are found in the rock. A classic example high porosity rock is sandstone. Sandstone has very large storage space for fluids such as water, oil, and natural gas. While permeability is the measure at which the pore of the rock are interconnected the higher the permeability the easier matter will flow.
Unconventional natural gas is mostly produced underneath the earth. These natural gas deposit are trapped inside these rocks are hard to extract, even though due to recent industrial advances in this industry has already made it doable to economically extract large amounts of natural gas from these rocks.
The Gas reservoirs are known as unconventional, a specialized extraction process such as horizontal, fracking and hydraulic drilling ought to be used to extract the gas. Unconventional natural gasses include tight gas, shale gas, sandstone, coal bed and methane.
Shale gas is usually trapped underneath the earth in the gas-rich rock known as shale layers. Shale gas is extracted by use of Hydraulic fracturing or fracturing process. The gas wells are in general drilled to the depths about 1500m to 4000m with the typical wells going to 2500m.
If drilling is vertical into the shale rock it doesn’t release sufficient gasses making the process economical due to the fact that most gasses are trapped on the shale rock, that’s why specialized procedures are required since row has low permeability to extract large amount of gasses from these rocks .Shale gas is one of the largest natural gasses we have in the world.
On the occasion, gas rich shale rock site has been recognized, a well is drilled vertically until it gets to the shale rock , as its penetrated it turns to and follows the shale rock horizontally, so that a single well passes through large areas of shale rock, which means more gas volume is extracted.
Steel casings are placed into these as to make sure the well is opened and also to protects the reliability of the well-bore. Cement is pushed into the well. By the aim sealing the well to preventing any fracking fluid, chemicals natural gas, and to leak into adjacent underground water supplies. The fracturing fluid is then pushed into the well at restricted pressures to fracture the rock thus the gas trapped is extracted from the shale rock as it flow on the surface the collected on specialized manner.
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